Skip to main content


The purpose of this site is to provide information, definitions, and resources for the usage of chemical additives during the manufacture of paper products. Goals include operating efficiency, minimization of environmental impacts, and achieving the properties required by clients.

My goal is to achieve accuracy. Please let me know at if and when you discover items in need of correction.

Users of this website are responsible for making sure that they are not infringing on any patents.


Martin A. Hubbe
Professor, North Carolina State University
Campus Box 8005
Raleigh, NC 27695-8005
001 - (919) 513-3022
Founding co-editor, BioResources,

Marty Hubbe, born in the papermaking town of Millinocket, Maine, earned a Masters degree at the Institute of Paper Chemistry (Appleton, WI, 1979), and a Ph.D. in chemistry at Clarkson University (Potsdam, NY, 1984).

Marty started by doing summer shift work at the local paper mill, which in those days made newsprint, directory, and coated magazine papers from spruce groundwood and sulfite pulps.  His interest in wet-end chemistry was kindled during a summer job at Consolidated Paper’s research center in Wisconsin in 1978.  He was fortunate in those years to attend one of Bill Scott’s first presentations of the TAPPI course “Introduction to Wet End Chemistry.”

Marty has been engaged with many papermaking chemistry issues, starting with a one-year independent study sponsored by the Watson Foundation (1976-1977). The goal was to determine factors contributing to the corrosion of metals exposed to paper machine process waters.  The study featured visits to over 30 mills mainly in Finland, Germany, and Sweden.  At the “Institute” (1977-1979) Marty began a long involvement with the fundamentals of fine-particle retention.  That focus was culminated at Clarkson University (1980-1984) with a thesis showing the mechanism by which hydrodynamic forces push fine particles from cellulosic surfaces to which they are attached.

Marty’s first long-term position was at the research center of American Cyanamid Corp. (Stamford, CT, 1984-1986), where the focus was on sizing agents.  The joke is that Marty worked on “that sizing agent that has more or less replaced ASA and AKD in the marketplace”.  “Less” is the important word in the preceding sentence.  In 1986 Hubbe joined International Paper (Tuxedo, NY), where he had the privilege of participating in one of the early conversions of a large paper machine system from acid to alkaline conditions.  In addition to being involved in product development, Marty did internal corporate training and worked to make the colors of paper products to match across grade lines and between production facilities.

As Professor and Buckman Distinguished Scientist at North Carolina State University (1998 to present), Marty teaches and conducts research related to the colloidal chemistry of cellulosic materials, with a particular focus on papermaking wet-end chemistry. Hubbe has conducted research related to paper strength, electrokinetic tests, flocculation, and dewatering.  He has also chaired TAPPI’s “Introduction to Wet-End Chemistry” short course and conducted university courses for on-campus students and distance-education.  The peer-reviewed scientific journal BioResources, which he co-founded and edits with Dr. Lucia, currently publishes about 600 scientific articles per year and has a Web of Science impact factor of 1.614.

Dr. Hubbe with the departments “giant cellulosic fiber” and a roll of “NCSU-red” paper that was made on the “Wolfpack Baby” paper machine


Ph.D., Physical Chemistry of Colloids, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 1984 M.S., Paper Technology, Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, WI, 1979

B.A., Chemistry, Colby College, Waterville, ME, 1976; B.A., Chemistry; with honors

Academic Rank:


Academic experience:

NC State University, Professor, Director of Distance Education program; University Distinguished Professor (Buckman Distinguished Professor), 2010-present, full time NC State University, Professor, Director of Distance Education program; Buckman Distinguished Professor, 2002-2010, full time

NC State University; Associate Professor and Buckman Distinguished Scientist, 1998-2002.

Non-academic experience:

International Paper Co., Principal Scientist, Corp. Res. Center, Tuxedo, NY, 1986- 1998.

American Cyanamid Corp., Research Associate, Stamford, CT, 1983-1986, full time

Certifications or professional registrations:

Current membership in professional organizations:

Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI)

Honors and awards:

NC State University Outstanding Teacher Award, 2012;  TAPPI Fellow, 2010

NC State University, University Professors of Distinction, 2010 TAPPI Oscar May Leadership and Service award, 2006

NC State University, Appointed Buckman Distinguished Scientist, 1998 Thomas J. Watson Foundation: Fellowship year award, 1976-1977

Service activities:

TAPPI: Numerous services to “Chemical Additives” committee

Editor, international peer-reviewed journal BioResources

Most important publications and presentations from the past five years:

Li, M.-C., Wu, Q., Moon, R. J., Hubbe, M. A., and Bortner, M. J. (2020). “Rheological aspects of cellulose nanomaterials: Governing factors and emerging applications,” Advanced Materials 33(21), article no. 2006052.

Hubbe, M. A., Lavoine, N., Lucia, L. A., and Dou, C. (2021). “Formulating bioplastic composites for biodegradability, recycling, and performance: A review,” BioResources 16(1), 2021-2083.

Price, C., and Hubbe, M. A. (2021). “Spraying starch on the Fourdrinier – An option between wet end starch and the size press,” TAPPI J. 20(1), 21-26.

Bildik Dal, A. E., Hubbe, M. A., Pal, L., and Gule, M. E. (2020). “Crude wood rosin and its derivatives as hydrophobic surface treatment additives for paper and packaging,” ACS Omega 5(49), 31559-31566. 

Kropat, M., Hubbe, M. A., and Laleicke, F. (2020). “Natural, accelerated, and simulated weathering of wood: A review,” BioResources 15(4), 9998-10062.

Horst, T. H., Smith, R. D., Potthast, A., and Hubbe, M A. (2020). “Accelerated aging of deacidified and untreated book paper in 1967 compared with 52 years of natural aging,” Restaurator – Int. J. Preservation Library Archiv. Mater. 41(3), 131-152.

Hubbe, M. A., and Rosencrance, S. (eds.) (2020). Make Paper Products Stand Out. Strategic Use of Wet End Chemical Additives, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA, 285 pp.

Yin, Y.-Y., Lucia, L. A., Pal, L., Jiang, X., and Hubbe, M. A. (2020). “Lipase-catalyzed laurate esterification of cellulose nanocrystals and their use in reinforcement in PLA composites,” Cellulose 27, 6263-6273.

Hubbe, M. A., and Grigsby, W. (2020). “From nanocellulose to wood particles: A review of particle size vs. the properties of plastic composites reinforced with cellulose-based entities,” BioResources 15(1), 2030-2081. DOI: 10.15376/biores.15.1.2030-2081

Hubbe, M. A., and Pruszynski, P. (2020). “Greaseproof paper products: A review emphasizing ecofriendly approaches,” BioResources 15(1), 1978-2004.

Hubbe, M. A., Azizian, S., and Douven, S. (2019). “Implications of apparent pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics onto cellulosic materials. A review,” BioResources 14(3), 7582-7626.

Hubbe, M., Alén, R., Paleologou, M., Kannangara, M., and Kihlman, J. (2019). “Lignin recovery from spent alkaline pulping liquors using acidification, membrane separation, and related processing steps: A Review,” BioResources 14(1), 2300-2351.

Rice, M. C., Pal, L., Gonzalez, R., and Hubbe, M. A. (2018). “Wet-end addition of nanofibrillated cellulose pretreated with cationic starch to achieve paper strength with less refining and higher bulk,” TAPPI J. 17(7), 395-403.

Hubbe, M. A., and Rosencrance, S. (eds.) (2018). Advances in Papermaking Wet End Chemistry Application Technologies, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, pp. 7-42.

Hubbe, M. A., Tayeb, P., Joyce, M., Tyagi, P., Kehoe, M., Dimic-Misic, K., and Pal, L. (2017). “Rheology of nanocellulose-rich aqueous suspensions: A review,” BioResources 12(4), 9556-9661.

Hubbe, M. A., Ferrer, A., Tyagi, P., Yin, Y., Salas, C., Pal, L., and Rojas, O. J. (2017). “Nanocellulose in thin films, coatings, and plies for packaging applications: A review,” BioResources 12(1), 2143-2233.

Hubbe, M. A., and Gill, R. A. (2016). “Fillers for papermaking: A review of their properties, usage practices, and their mechanistic role,” BioResources 11(1), 2886-2963.